Blue as the sky, bright as a mirror, thin as paper, sound like a chime, moisturized with fine lines, thick loess, and different in fine color, it is the crown of all kilns
After the rain, the sky and the clouds are broken
Like colors make the future
Aging in a bottle
Red head twine series mellow
The old Liangshan water berth
It should be Xiaoergu Lounge
This sutra bottle weighs 4.635kg, the height of the bottle is about 42cm, the diameter at breast height is about 25cm, the diameter of the ring mouth is about 9cm, the diameter of the bottom foot is about 14cm, and the thickness is about 0.3cm.
Discuss the wood kiln in detail
Chinese ancient ceramics , as a shining pearl among ancient Chinese artworks , have always been loved and watched by the world, and they carry the history of Chinese civilization for thousands of years. For thousands of years, kiln mouths have been lined up with famous products. As the only kiln mouth named after the emperor Xingshi in Chinese history, the firewood kiln porcelain produced by it was not only called the first of the five famous kilns by the ancients, but also regarded as the emperor of porcelain by the world. While the king of ancient ceramics is highly admired by the world, what is left to the world is more suspense, speculation and controversy.
According to legend, after five generations, Emperor Shizong of Zhou, Chai Rong, had both civil and military skills. He was exceptionally talented and had a wide range of interests. He liked porcelain . Therefore, he set up a kiln to make porcelain for himself. Later generations called this kiln a wood kiln. The characteristics of firewood kiln porcelain are described in the literature. Because of the exquisiteness of firewood kiln porcelain, it has been highly evaluated in the literature. Ancient documents once recorded: "The firewood kiln is as blue as the sky, bright as a mirror, and as thin as paper. The sound is like a chime, moisturizing with fine lines. The foot is thick loess, and the refined color is different. It is the crown of all kilns." Although there are many records of firewood kiln porcelain in ancient documents, there is no single firewood kiln porcelain recognized by the world in the hands of private collectors, in China or even in major museums in the world, and there is not even a piece of porcelain . Especially in recent years, archaeological excavations have not found its kiln mouth. All this has made Chai kiln porcelain a mysterious case in the history of Chinese ceramics, and this has caused many speculations and disputes in the world.
At present, there are mainly the following points about the speculation and controversy surrounding Chai kiln porcelain. The author will discuss these points separately and clarify my own views. If there is any incorrectness, please correct me. The discussion and research are important.
Does the wood kiln exist? Is Chai Kiln Porcelain an independent kiln mouth product? Or is it the most exquisite product of some other kiln?
Regarding this question, although archaeological excavations did not find the kiln mouth, according to the records of ancient documents, it can be answered with certainty that the firewood kiln exists, and it is an independent kiln mouth, which produces exquisite ceramics. We call it Chai kiln porcelain is not an exquisite product from some other kiln. Some scholars in the ancient ceramics circle now believe that the wood kiln does not exist, or that the wood kiln is not an independent kiln. Hutian kiln, or Yaozhou kiln, is one of the most exquisite porcelains, and some even think that Chai kiln porcelain is the dense-colored porcelain in Yue kiln. For the above point of view, the author thinks that it is untenable. Reasons As follows: 1. According to historical records, after five generations, Emperor Shizong of Zhou, Chai Rong, had both civil and military skills. He was an accomplished emperor. In order to satisfy his hobbies and interests, he ordered the establishment of imperial kilns to make porcelain that suits his aesthetics. Possibly, because of his ability to do this effortlessly, it can be seen that the establishment of firewood kilns was a natural phenomenon in a society where the imperial power was supreme at that time. Therefore, the establishment of the firewood kiln has internal reasons and external capabilities. Second, from a variety of ancient literature analysis, for various categories of ancient porcelain varieties record is very detailed, very few records Pingkong coined by writer Ouyang Xiu Song, the Ming Dynasty Great appreciation house Cao Chao, by having Shiquan martial arts known as the Qing emperor Qianlong emperor, to the Republic of China a large collection of family records Zhao Ruzhen so on firewood kiln point of view, this is not their vivid Pingkong fiction, while the level of appreciation they will never Hutian, Chau Yiu kiln, Yue One of the exquisite varieties was mistaken for the firewood kiln, so it can be said with certainty that firewood kilns exist, and created the exquisite firewood kiln porcelain which is called the emperor of porcelain by later generations.
Speaking of this, someone might ask? Since firewood kiln porcelain does exist, why is there no piece of firewood now? Even the precious and rare Song Ru Kiln Porcelain and Song Guan Kiln Porcelain can be seen in museums or private collectors. Why can't you see Chai Kiln Porcelain? There are several reasons for this problem. One is that there are too few firewood kilns. In fact, many people think that firewood kilns, like Song Ru kilns and Song Guan kilns, are all set up by the imperial court to make porcelain for the royal family. If this is the case, it would be a big mistake. Song Ru kilns and Song Guan kilns are indeed kilns set up by the imperial court to make porcelain for the royal family. It is not only for the emperor himself, but also for the entire royal family and even the best ministers. All, so although they are scarce, there are still a certain amount. Chai kiln porcelain is different. It was set up by Chai Rong and fired in a kiln exclusively for his own use and appreciation of porcelain, because Chai Rong asked him to burn in the kiln. out of porcelain, both practical device is peerless artistic products, others are not available, including ministers and members of the royal family the best, can only be a tribute to the royal family's secret color porcelain kilns or other continents, such as Yao kiln, Hutian, Ding kiln and other tribute porcelains can be seen that the firewood kiln only requires high quality but not quantity. Due to the control of the scope of use and the short firing time, it can be seen that the number of firewood kiln porcelain is scarce. At that time, with such a small number, it is not surprising that today, more than a thousand years later, there is really nothing. We can also see the strictness of the ancients. They considered this kiln after careful consideration when naming the kiln. They neither called the kiln an official kiln nor named the kiln according to the area of the kiln, but only named Chai. Xingshi named the kiln, which is enough to show that the use of porcelain in the kiln is limited to Chai Rong himself. Another reason why the world’s recognized firewood kiln porcelain has not yet been discovered is that although the ancient documents record firewood kilns in detail, they are not comprehensive enough, and some are very one-sided. This makes us not yet understand the firewood kiln porcelain enough, so that we are appraising it. There is a misunderstanding. In other words, a genuine firewood kiln porcelain is placed in front of us, and we cannot or dare not identify it as firewood kiln porcelain. So where is this misunderstanding? You can find the answer through the following discussion.
2. Is Chai Kiln a kiln that only burns celadon ? Or was it a kiln that burned white porcelain, black porcelain, and tortoiseshell porcelain?
In ancient China’s major kilns, there were kilns that burned only one type of celadon ware, and kilns that burned multiple-color glaze wares. So what is the situation of wood kilns? Some scholars in the ancient ceramics circle now believe that the wood kiln only burns celadon and does not burn other types of colored glaze porcelain. Scholars holding this view only mentioned celadon in Chai kilns based on various ancient literature records, but no records of other colored glazed porcelains, and Chai Rong’s words: Color is the future", this sentence is to judge. Other scholars believe that the celadon fired in the wood kiln is a special fired variety in its later mature period. During its initial research and development period, it has fired a variety of colored glaze porcelains, including: white glazed porcelain, black glazed porcelain, and kiln changes. Tortoiseshell glazed porcelain and so on. Scholars holding this view are also based on the records of various ancient documents and several imperial inscribed poems by Emperor Qianlong. Emperor Qianlong inscribed a poem when he was playing with the wood kiln pillows in the palace. The two sentences are: Such as the sea tortoiseshell, "Green Yi", "Eight Annotations". When writing a poem for Chaiyao bowls, there are two sentences: "They are all black and no cyan, recording who is the real thing." At the same time, there is a white porcelain carved palace pillow and a white glaze which are produced by the Shanghai Museum and Beijing . According to the conclusion drawn from the carved bowl, even some Japanese scholars believe that firewood kiln fired white glazed porcelain. For the above two viewpoints, the author believes that the latter is more realistic. Let’s analyze it in detail. According to the literature, the official appointed by Chai Rong in charge of the kiln burning task asked Chai Rong to order the porcelain standard. The famous saying: “When the sky is raining and the clouds are broken, the colors of the people make the future”. In fact, we can analyze a lot of information from this. One is that although Chai Rong likes porcelain and decided to set up a kiln to make porcelain for himself, At the beginning, he didn't have a mental model of what kind of porcelain the kiln had to fire, in order to be more in line with his aesthetic taste, status, and stunning and unique. Therefore, he would order the kiln to imitate the fine porcelain at the mouth of several famous kilns at the time, such as Hutian kiln, Yaozhou kiln, Yue kiln, Ding kiln, Xing kiln, etc. , to refine and refine, and to carry out innovation and innovation to fire samples. , In order to decide for yourself what kind of porcelain will be fired in the kiln in the future. In fact, the kiln workers at the kiln at that time were all technical elites recruited from the major kilns. At this time, they were in possession of the emperor's life, and they had strong financial and material resources to support them, so they quickly burned out a variety of exquisite Porcelain, including celadon, white porcelain, black porcelain, and such as the tortoiseshell kiln type porcelain. Due to the innovation of many new technologies and the use of many precious materials, this batch of porcelain is beautiful and unusual, and the samples are shaped. Therefore, officials in charge of the kiln will bring In the scene of various porcelain samples asking the emperor for porcelain standards, in feudal society officials asked the emperor to order any styles of things, samples must be presented. The emperor reviewed the sample porcelain, and what attracted him the most and in line with his aesthetic psychology was a kind of porcelain that was as blue as the sky. Perhaps it had just rained on that day, and it happened to have rained and the sky was clear at that time, and the blue sky was clear where the clouds broke. When the emperor saw that the porcelain was shining like the sky, the emperor's inspiration flashed, and he immediately pointed to the horizon and said: After the rain passes, the sky is clear and the clouds are broken, the color is like the future. In one sentence, it points out the direction for the future of the kiln. Those samples were also collected by him in the palace for his enjoyment and use. Speaking of this, some people may ask, before Chai Rong set up a kiln for himself, did he not have a general mentality to build this kiln to burn what kind of porcelain? This question is really confusing, but judging from the plot of the official’s request for customization, the actual situation is indeed the case. If he has long wanted to burn the blue porcelain, he can directly order the kiln to develop it. Burning is enough, and there will be no more custom-made plots of officials requesting it, and it will not say: "After the sky is raining and the clouds are broken, the color like the one will make the future." This classic saying is.
Below we are starting from: "When the sky is raining and the clouds are broken, the color like the other will make the future." This sentence is to analyze whether the firewood kiln only burned celadon, or burned a variety of colored glaze porcelain, what Chai Rong said at the time The meaning is: this kiln will fire this kind of porcelain in the same color as the rainy days and clear clouds in the future. The word "future" of the sentence clearly indicates that it is the type of porcelain that the kiln will burn in the future. Since there is a future, there will be the present. Then what type of porcelain is the kiln burning now? Is there only one variety of celadon? From a few imperial poems of Emperor Qianlong, we can see that Chai kiln porcelain not only has sea tortoiseshell, but also black. This is enough to prove that Chai kiln has burned various colors of glaze porcelain, including sea tortoiseshell, and Black, so is there any white porcelain? There is no doubt about this, because in the Tang Dynasty Yue kiln celadon, Xing kiln white porcelain crowned the world, Chai Rong set up a kiln to burn both celadon and sea tortoiseshell black porcelain, and would never ignore white porcelain.
From this discussion, we can draw the conclusion: when the firewood kiln was established, many kinds of colored glaze porcelains were burned. The blue and sky-colored porcelain was only a variety that was approved by the Emperor Caihuang and was only burned later. Therefore, we can conclude that it is now in The exquisite white porcelain pillows and white porcelain bowls produced in the five generations of the two museums in China should be firewood kiln products. It can be seen that thousands of years later, it is not that firewood has not been seen, but we do not know enough about firewood kilns, which makes the identification misunderstanding , So that the peerless national treasure revered as the Porcelain Emperor buried the dust.
There is a speculation, "When the sky is clear and the cloud breaks, the future is like the color" can also be translated, "When the sky is clear, the cloud is broken, all colors make the future", then what color are all colors You, where the sky has been raining and the clouds are broken, there should be a blue sky, white clouds, and other gloomy and uncertain colors. Therefore, it is certain that the wood kiln will burn white porcelain and sky blue porcelain.
3. Is there only one kind of glaze color in the celadon made in the wood kiln? Or are there multiple chromatic aberrations in cyan?
In ancient documents, the first mention of the firewood kiln is: "green as the sky", or "who sees the color of the firewood kiln, the blue rain is out of date". Therefore, many scholars believe that firewood kiln porcelain has only the glaze color of blue as the sky. It is impossible to have other cyan colors, and some scholars believe that blue as sky is only the most perfect and noble variety in Chai kiln porcelain. Chai kiln porcelain also has powder green, bean green, gray green, and many other cyan colors. The author believes that all of the above points are correct, but there are biases. We should understand this problem in this way. Although the firewood kiln is superb in the process of firing porcelain, it is impossible to burn the porcelain of every kiln to pure blue as the sky. Because of the different placement of porcelain in the kiln, slight temperature changes will change the glaze color of the porcelain. This makes the porcelain glaze color of a kiln rarely consistent, not only the wood kiln, but also the famous Song Ru Kiln and Song Dynasty The same is true for official kilns. If we carefully observe and study, we will find that the glaze colors of Song Ru kiln porcelain are different and rarely consistent. This is all caused by technical constraints. Therefore, it is normal for wood kilns to be able to produce a variety of cyan colors such as azure, pink, bean, and gray. The problem is that these types of cyan porcelain can be produced even if they are perfectly burnt. Present it to the emperor? I don’t think it’s possible, because the emperor wanted pure blue-like sky-colored porcelain. Officials did not dare to present porcelain other than blue-like sky to the emperor. They could only present pure and flawless blue-like sky porcelain to the emperor. Celadon of other colors can only be regarded as scraps, broken and buried. This is another reason why firewood kilns are scarce. We also know that if there is a complete firewood kiln that has been passed down to the world, it can only be as blue as the sky. It is not surprising that there are many cyan colors such as azure, pink, bean, and gray. Of course, if there were officials or kiln workers who risked their lives to hide and stay in the world, it would be another matter. Even if there is a sample that was burned at the time, there may be a complete utensil that is not pure and blue as the sky, but it is still unknown. The blue sky is the perfect artistic conception that Chai Rong pursues. At that time, we don't know how many perfect blue sky-colored porcelain can be produced by the kiln workers in a short time. Perhaps what Chai Rong wants is the kind of satisfaction that he can enjoy uniquely rare works of art.
4. What color is the color that Chai Rong imperially criticized for "Raining through the sky and clearing the clouds, and the color of the future"?
"When it rains, the sky clears the place where the clouds are broken, the color like the future" is the glaze color specified by Chai Rong for the future firing of the porcelain in his kiln. So what color is "the place where the sky clears the clouds after rain"? This issue has been arguing since ancient times. Some people think that the rainy day Qingyun broken place is a kind of blue ground but a light white color floating, and some believe that the rainy day Qingyun broken place is later Ru Kiln. The azure glaze that was fired in the official kiln is accepted by most scholars now. Is that really the case? Let’s analyze it carefully. In fact, all of us know that after a heavy rain, the sky is clear and the clouds are broken, and the sky is a clear and clear blue. In fact, each of us has that experience, that is, after the heavy rain, the rain After the weather is clear, the clear and clear blue sky will brighten our eyes. While being attracted by the charming colors, our hearts will suddenly open up, and we will feel relaxed and happy. I think Chai Rong felt that way at the time, so he chose that color as the glaze color for his kiln in the future. This is due to people's normal aesthetic point of view, because that color is indeed elegant and otherworldly. Second, this color has not existed since ancient times, but it is actually a pioneer. Fu He Chai Rong set up his own kiln to create the hegemonic mentality of ancient and modern times. Therefore, Chai Rong’s imperial approval is the clear and bright blue color. The sky is the color of the clear cloud after rain, and the white cloud next to it will never be counted. It is not correct to plant a blue ground with a light white color. Then some people think that the sky blue glaze is the kind of azure glaze fired in the Ru kiln and the official kiln after the rain. Is it correct? Let's analyze the ancient documents. The ancient documents include: "The color of the firewood kiln is the same after the rain passes the sky, and the ru kiln imitated it is not like | ". From this we can see that the ancients believed that the glaze color of the rainy day is the same as the firewood kiln porcelain. The Ru kiln imitated it differently. In ancient documents and firewood kiln ware: "The color is different and refined, it is the crown of ancient kilns." It can be seen that the ancients believed that the glaze color of firewood kiln porcelain is different from the weight, and it is the crown of ancient kilns. The glaze color of the kiln porcelain at the broken sky is the same as the sky blue glaze of the Ru kiln, Guan kiln, Hutian kiln, etc. It cannot be distinguished from high and low, so the ancients would not have this record. Therefore, the glaze color of Chai kiln porcelain is different from that of Ru kiln, Guan kiln, Hutian kiln, etc. The clear azure blue, this is the true color of the color "the color of the sky will be the future".
[Discussion] Said by Zhou Shizong and Chai Rong: After the rain, the sky, the clouds, and the clouds break the place, the color will make the future. According to documentary records, Chai Rong has only six years of reign after becoming the Emperor of Zhou. During these six years, Chai Rong has been together It’s not just to concentrate on researching and firing porcelain, and the workers in the kiln will not make this beautiful [azure] color all at once. Of course, it is not easy to imitate the same color as nature. [Thangka] is to use ore. It is natural to be pigments, but it has not undergone high-temperature smelting kilns, so I think that in the later weeks, including the Song Dynasty, this [azure] is only a realm of pursuit.
5. How to understand the "brightness as a mirror" of Chai kiln porcelain?
In ancient documents, it is recorded that the firewood kiln first mentioned: "blue as the sky", and then it is said to be "bright as a mirror". There are differences in understanding of this sentence. Some scholars believe that the glaze of firewood kiln porcelain is Glass glaze has strong texture, bright and clean, like glass like a mirror. Some believe that the glaze of Chai kiln porcelain is opalescent glaze, which is bright but warm and has a strong jade texture. Before analyzing this problem, let’s clarify a problem, that is, what the ancients said is "bright as a mirror". This mirror should be a bronze mirror. The mirror reflects the light, no matter how bright it is, it is not very strong. With this premise, we In the analysis of the glaze of Chai kiln porcelain, there is a record in the ancient document "Nan Kiln Notes": "Chai kiln, during the Wude period of Zhou Dynasty, the treasure house fire, glass, agate, and other golden stones were sintered in one place, and the glaze was made because of orders." We know that the composition of the glaze of the Chai kiln should be similar to that of Song Ru porcelain, so is this record reliable? I think it is reliable, because in many ancient documents there are records of the luster of the glaze of Chai kiln porcelain, such as: "Baoying shoots his eyes", "Its color is pure blue, flowing light is overflowing", "Thousands of years of flames are hidden, a piece of water Wave light" and so on. Although these records may be exaggerated, they still reveal information about the glaze and weight of the wood kiln. From the perspective of the environment at that time, the major kilns such as Yue kiln, Yaozhou kiln, Hutian kiln, Ding kiln The top porcelains fired at the mouth of the kiln, Xing kiln, etc., are regarded as exquisite masterpieces, but Chai Rong had to set up his own kiln to burn his own porcelain. It can be seen that his intention of setting up the kiln was to use his own power to make It is a kind of porcelain that is a precedent in history. He did not hesitate to work hard for the porcelain he burned to be unique and noble. It was entirely possible to use precious glass, agate, and other precious stones to make glaze. Therefore, we can see that the later Song Ru kiln porcelain was actually fired in a wood kiln. The ancients once said: "The Northern Song Dynasty Ru kiln is quite similar", "Who sees the color of the wood kiln? It seems that the official bureau made the record of selflessness. It can be seen that it is very correct, but the Ru kiln did not master some of the porcelain essence of the wood kiln, so the imitation is not the same. Through the above analysis, we affirm that Chai kiln porcelain glaze is a kind of opalescent glaze, which is basically the same as Ru kiln glaze. The glaze surface of Chai kiln porcelain standard blue and sky porcelain should be bright and clear, moist and delicate, and warm and shiny. Even when we see it today, a thousand years later, its glaze will still flash a moisturizing and shining luster like a layer of water, unless of course it is severely corroded. This is the meaning of Chai porcelain "bright as a mirror". So are all Chai kiln porcelain tiles with this texture and gloss? Not at all, because the texture and luster of the glaze of porcelain are determined by the high firing temperature as well as the glaze color. Porcelain is subjected to high temperatures in the kiln, and the glaze has high vitrification strength, strong gloss, and dazzling dazzling. The medium temperature is low, the vitrification strength of the glaze is low, the gloss is dim, and there is even a matt phenomenon. Only by controlling the temperature in an appropriate range, can the glaze be burnt with pure color, warm and luminous jade texture, moisturizing and translucent, reflecting and shining shiny glazed porcelain. Therefore, we should not judge whether or not it is a Chai kiln porcelain piece just because it is “clear as a mirror” when appraising a porcelain piece, but should consider and analyze it comprehensively. What's more, the formula of the glaze at that time should be in the development experiment, it is normal that there are differences.
6. What is "thin as paper" of Chai kiln porcelain?
In ancient documents, most of the firewood kilns mentioned it: "thin as paper". There are different opinions about this "thin as paper" since ancient times. Some say that "thin as paper" refers to the thin glaze layer of the firewood kiln porcelain. Some people think that “thin as paper” means that the tires of Chai kiln porcelain are as thin as paper, while others think that “thin as paper” refers to the overall porcelain wall of Chai kiln porcelain. One point is correct. Let’s analyze it in detail. The ancient records of Chai kiln porcelain are: “blue as the sky, bright as a mirror, thin as paper, and sound like a chime.” These four sentences are both for Chai kiln porcelain. A kind of record is also a kind of praise to Chai kiln porcelain. It not only praises the beauty of Chai kiln porcelain glaze, but also is light and delicate. Since it is a record and praise, then it must be a record of a piece of porcelain as a whole. Praise, in other words, he will record or praise that the porcelain walls of Chai kiln porcelain are very thin, light and delicate. He will not only record or praise the thin glaze layer or porcelain body of Chai kiln porcelain. It is not surprising that many thin glaze or thin porcelains were fired in the mouth of the big kiln. Only when Chai kiln porcelain makes the porcelain wall combined with the glaze glaze very thin and distinctive, can it be praised by the ancients. Of course, "thin as paper" only describes the porcelain wall as thin, not necessarily true. As thin as paper, especially let us not think about modern paper. Since the ancients recorded that firewood kiln porcelain was “thin as paper”, are all firewood kiln porcelains with thin walls? In fact, it is not, because the ancient porcelain craftsmen in my country not only pay attention to aesthetics, but also pay attention to mechanics. They will perfectly combine mechanics and aesthetics to design perfect porcelain according to the different functions of porcelain. Tea sets, tableware, stationery, and ornaments can be made very thin, while porcelain pillows, flower pots, and ding stoves must be made thicker to avoid damage during use, even if the thin-walled porcelain is firewood. What Rong Keyi requested, it is impossible to make all types of porcelain as thin as paper, because some porcelain will not be able to meet the function of use. Even though the walls of the same utensil are made as thin as paper, the parts that are often stressed, such as legs and ears, will not be made very thin. Zhang Yingwen's Qing Mi Zang in the Ming Dynasty once recorded: "On kiln utensils, It must be Chai, Ru, Guan, Ge, Ding. Chai cannot be obtained. Hearing it makes the cloud: blue as the sky, bright as a mirror, thin as paper, and sound like a chime. I have seen this in person, so the argument is true. For the remaining items, see a piece of remnant, those made of polyester ring will have the same color and light, but the ears are different. The record in this paragraph should be credible. Zhang Yingwen may have seen a washing end ear. Because he had to withstand end force, he made it thicker. From this we have come to the conclusion that "thin as paper" is only a feature of certain types of utensils in Chai kiln porcelain, not a feature of all Chai kiln porcelains, and whether it is "thin as paper|" to affirm or deny a piece Whether the utensil and a piece of porcelain are Chai kiln porcelain.
7. How to understand the "sound like a chime" of Chai kiln porcelain?
In ancient documents, most of the firewood kilns mentioned it: "The sound is like a chime", so how should we understand this "sound like a chime"? Many people now think that it is just as sharp as a metal "bell" or a loud sound like a stone chime if you strike a wood kiln with your hands. In fact, this is considered incomplete. Before discussing this issue, we First clarify what the ancients said "sounds like a chime" is a chime, is it a percussion instrument made of jade or stone in ancient times, or a copper-iron bowl made by a monk. I think it is the latter because it is used The chime made of jade or stone will make a loud sound when struck, but the sound is short and monotonous, and any porcelain knock on the kiln mouth will make that loud sound. The bronze chime hammered by the monk in the temple is different. When it is hammered, it not only has a loud sound, but also has a long remaining sound and a melodious sound. Therefore, the ancients recorded that the firewood kiln "sounds like a chime" means that when only striking the chai kiln porcelain, it will make a loud and reverberant sound like a copper chime. Because this is a feature that distinguishes Chai kiln porcelain from other kiln mouth porcelains, the ancient Chinese record of "sound like a chime|" only sees Chai kiln porcelain, but not other kiln mouths. There are also many conditions for porcelain to sound like a chime. First, the quality of the porcelain clay should be good, the porcelain body should be firm and dense, and the sintering temperature should be high. If there is, the porcelain wall should be thin and the porcelain The type should be regular. Obviously Chai Kiln Porcelain has these conditions. So are all wood kiln porcelains "sound like a chime"? In fact, it is not. Only thin-walled and open objects such as bowls, bowls, bowls, slag buckets and other types of utensils will make a "sound-like chime" sound when they are struck. Objects such as porcelain pillows will not make that sound. Kind of sound.
[Note] This wine scripture bottle is placed on the table, and the sound like [chime] can be heard even if you tap the table top.
[Discussion] The frequency of sound waves is affected by factors such as quality and geometric dimensions
8. What does the “fine lines” of Chai kiln porcelain refer to?
In ancient documents, most of the firewood kilns mentioned the characteristics of the glazed surface: "with fine lines", while other ancient kilns such as Ru, Ding, Guan, Ge, Jun, Yao, Long, Yue, etc. There is no such a saying about the characteristics of the glazed surface. Is this "fine pattern" a unique characteristic of the glazed surface of Chai kiln porcelain? In this regard, some scholars believe that this fine pattern refers to the opening of the glaze of Chai kiln porcelain, and other scholars believe that this fine pattern refers to the fine streaks on the glaze of Chai kiln porcelain, which are similar to those of Jun kiln porcelain. Some scholars think this Fine lines refer to a certain kind of fine lines carved under the glaze surface of Chai kiln. We will discuss and analyze these points of view. Let’s start with the last point. If “fine lines” mean that there are carved under the glaze Fine patterns, then this pattern can never be a simple line, it should be a very exquisite pattern, because the carving craftsmanship of Yaozhou kiln, Yue kiln, Hutian kiln and other kilns reached a very high level. Chai kiln porcelain is the imperial porcelain used by the emperor himself. If you use carved flowers to decorate the porcelain, you can imagine the exquisite patterns. If this is the case, the exquisite pattern decoration beauty becomes another major beauty of Chai kiln porcelain after the beauty of the glaze color. The ancients used the words "green as the sky" to describe and record the beauty of the glaze color of Chai kiln porcelain. Is it sufficient to describe and record the pattern beauty of Chai kiln porcelain with "fine lines"? Obviously it is impossible. The ancients would not use this vague way to record and describe the most important characteristics of Chai kiln porcelain. Therefore, we should consider this view to be untenable. Let's analyze the second point of view. If this fine pattern refers to the fine streaks on the glaze surface of Chai kiln porcelain that are similar to those of Jun kiln porcelain, how did this feature come about? Is it the characteristic that Chai Rong wanted? Chai Rong's imperial batch is the clear and clear azure blue that "rains over the sky and clear clouds". Will it be added later that some kiln thin stripes should be added to the clear and clear glaze? This is obviously impossible. If it was accidentally formed by the kiln workers during the firing, it could only be a characteristic of the transformation of a very few porcelain kilns, and the “fine lines” recorded in the wood kiln should be a common feature. Therefore, this fine pattern does not mean that the glaze of Chai kiln porcelain has fine streaks similar to those of Jun kiln porcelain. We are looking at the first point of view. Some scholars believe that this fine line refers to the opening of the glaze of the wood kiln. The author believes that this view is correct, because the openings of porcelain in many ancient documents are all " The word "wen" is recorded in the "Changwuzhi" by Wen Zhenheng in the Ming Dynasty: "Guan, Ge, and Ru kilns are topped with powder blue, followed by pale white, and putty is the bottom. The pattern is based on cracked ice, eel blood, and iron. The foot is the top, plum blossom slices and black stripes are second, and the fine text is the bottom." The characters "wen" in these records all refer to the glazed slices of porcelain, and Tian Yiheng's "Liuqing Rizha" in the Ming Dynasty records the Ge Kiln: There are many broken patterns and the number is broken, so it is called Ge Kiln. The "broken pattern" here also refers to the glazed opening of porcelain. Therefore, it is correct to record that Chai kiln porcelain "has fine lines" means that the glazed surface of the porcelain is opened. It is only true that the porcelains of Ru, Guan, Ge and other kilns also have openings. The ancient records of them are: caviar In the records of figurative images, such as ox hair pattern, crab claw pattern, broken garbage, gold wire and iron thread, etc., why is it so simple that the opening film of the wood kiln only says "there are fine patterns"? In fact, this is exactly the difference between the glazed slices of Chai kiln porcelain and the glazed slices of Ru and Guan’ge kilns. Most of the glazed slices of Ru and Guan’ge porcelain have relatively thick and relatively thick pattern. There are many, criss-crossing, and even some layers of green, most of which are very obvious. The openings of Chai kiln porcelain should be very subtle, looming, and there are very few patterns, which rarely constitute a criss-cross phenomenon. The ancients did not find the appropriateness. The image metaphor is therefore only recorded as "with fine lines", indicating that the glaze of the Chai kiln porcelain has the characteristics of fine cracking.
9. What does Chai Kiln Porcelain refer to?
In ancient documents, most of the chai kilns mentioned it: "Zuduo coarse loess" is the characteristic of the sole. So what does this "zuduo coarse loess" refer to? This issue can be said to be the most controversial issue now, because it is related to the characteristics of the wood kiln porcelain matrix, so it is very important. According to this record, some scholars now believe that the wood kiln is a thicker loess fetus. The exposed tire has no glaze and shows the characteristics of coarse loess. Some scholars resolutely or deny this view. The reason is that Chai kiln porcelain is respected as the emperor of porcelain and the crown of all kilns. How can it be the porcelain body of coarse loess, and the identity of the emperor is not the same. At the same time, how can the coarse loess tire be burnt with the effect of "thin as paper and sound as chime"? Therefore, some scholars infer that Chai kiln porcelain uses glaze-scraping pad firing. The soles of the feet where the glaze is removed are brushed with red-yellow juice. After firing, the exposed parts of the soles of the feet are reddish-yellow, just like "coarse loess". More scholars believe that "foot-duo coarse loess" is a feature of tire-protecting glaze. Some scholars believe that "Zuduo Coarse Loess" is only the traces of pad burning when the porcelain is fired. After the utensils are out of the kiln, a thin layer of high-temperature tyre-protecting mud appears, showing an irregular oxidized iron color. It looks rough and almost yellow, like rough loess. Some scholars believe that in order to prevent the kiln from sticking to the bottom of the kiln, there is a layer of coarse loess-like burning soil on the foot pads, and some of the utensils stick to the bottom of the feet when they are out of the kiln. loess". Scholars who have studied Chai kiln porcelain for a time have presented various opinions. They have different opinions, each holds their own opinions, and each has its own reasons, but they are not completely convincing. Some scholars even deny this view altogether, thinking that they are ancient people. The record is wrong, "Zuduo coarse loess" does not refer to the firewood kiln. So how to understand this "zuduo coarse loess", let's first analyze the various viewpoints of important scholars and make conclusions. Let's discuss and analyze the last point of view. "Zuduo coarse loess" will stick to the bottom of the porcelain. Is it a rough loess-like mat burn? In the Five Dynasties, my country’s porcelain manufacturing process entered a golden age. The fine products of various kilns were superimposed, and the porcelain-making technology was also improved and developed. A variety of branch firing and mat firing techniques appeared, such as the three-pronged and four-pronged firing techniques of the Yaozhou kiln. Chai and Wuchazhi firing techniques, as well as the glaze scraping and mat firing technology of Yue kiln, treat the bottom and feet of porcelain perfectly. Chai kiln porcelain does not use advanced mat firing technology as a high-standard imperial porcelain. Is the backward rough loess-like mat burning earth used for mat burning? Is the emperor satisfied with making fine-colored porcelain with thick yellow pads on the bottom? Can later generations be called the porcelain emperor? It is impossible to think about it. Therefore, this view is untenable. We are looking at the last two points of view. Will "the amount of thick loess" be a thin, high-temperature tire-protecting mud that looks rough and almost yellow, forming pad burn marks? Among the mouths of ancient kilns, most of the porcelain bottoms of Hutian kilns have this characteristic. The burn marks of the rough and yellow pads are often accompanied by black iron spots. "Midi" is vivid and vivid. From the perspective of our current people, both ancient porcelain scholars and laymen would think that it is very appropriate to call it "Midi", but no one thinks it is. It will be cut for "rough loess", because the burn marks of the pad will not be associated with the rough loess. It would not be so absurd for the ancients to write books and to be connoisseurs, so this view is also untenable. We are looking at the bottom three points of view. Will "the thick loess of the foot" be a kind of tire-protecting glaze? Among the ancient kilns, Songjun porcelain is the porcelain variety that uses the most tyre-protecting glaze, and its bottom is mostly brushed with brown tyre-protecting glaze. The ancients called it "sesame sauce bottom".
We can easily separate the tyre-protecting glaze, enamel, and carcass when we appraise Jun porcelain, because the tyre-protecting glaze is also a kind of glaze, which will be evenly attached to the carcass when brushed on the carcass, and accompanied by The luster of the glaze is easy to see. Even if the wood kiln used an earthy yellow tyre-protecting glaze, the ancients would see it, and would not see it as "rough loess", so this view is also untenable of. We are looking at the fourth to last point of view. Is the "foot-duo-coarse loess" a red-yellow juice applied on the soles of the feet where the glaze is removed? In the Five Dynasties, only Yaozhou kilns and Yue kilns used this glaze pad firing technique, and the traces left on their bottom feet were indeed red and yellow, and they were very dense, but he preferred modern antique porcelain on the bottom. Like the thick flint red, it is easy to identify, and its characteristics are not related to rough loess at all. Therefore, this view is also untenable. Now there is the first view. In fact, we learned from the ancients. According to the record, it is directly judged that "Zuduo coarse loess" means that only Chai kiln is a kind of coarse loess. The characteristic of coarse loess is shown because of the unglazed sole of the foot. Is this view correct? The author’s analysis is correct. The reason why some scholars have misunderstood that Chai kiln porcelain is regarded as the emperor of porcelain and the crown of all kilns. It cannot be the porcelain body of coarse loess, and the coarse loess is actually the same as the porcelain emperor. The identities do not match each other, and at the same time, the burning of rough loess does not produce the effect of "thin as paper, sound as chime". This is because they still don’t understand the characteristics of the coarse loess used in firewood kiln porcelain. In fact, this coarse loess is the crystallization of the wisdom of firewood kiln craftsmen. We all know that the ancients invented a kind of inkstone in the Tang Dynasty. A kind of fine sand in the river is washed and cleared by a special process, and then fired. The ancients called it Chengni inkstone. It is one of the four famous inkstones in ancient times. It has many colors such as yellow and orange. The surface of the kind of Chengni inkstone is cemented with fine sand, but it is very firm, and the percussion makes a metallic sound. The craftsmen of the wood kiln used this technique in the porcelain making process and invented a The porcelain body made of yellow fine sand and mud, in fact, the ancients recorded the Chai kiln porcelain as "sand mud as embryo, full of loess", but we have not penetrated the mystery. Emperor Qianlong once wrote a poem for the pillows of the chai kiln: "The earthy nature bears the feet, and the copper is not the jaws", pointing out that the chai kiln porcelain is not only a loess foot, but also the mouth of the utensils appears due to thin glaze. A yellow carcass is formed, and a yellow circle like a copper mouth is formed at the mouth
The former is flashed, and the latter is photographed
in white light . In the poem for the Chai Yao bowl, a sentence is used: "The foot, the earth, the mouth and the copper are still everywhere" again points out this feature. So Chai kiln porcelain is a porcelain body made of yellow fine sand, but why the ancients recorded it as "coarse yellow soil" mud. In fact, the ancient records are very correct. This fine sand was washed and cleared by a special process. Thin, but still looks a kind of granular shape, and compared with other kiln mouths made by scouring the "face shape" of the porcelain body is relatively thicker, to use an analogy: it is like the hair is already very thin, but compared with the hair , The hair is still very thick. The ancients only looked at the exposed tires of Chai kiln porcelain. The yellow fine-sand mud tires were relatively thicker than those at the mouth of other kilns. That's why it was recorded that Chai kiln porcelain was “more coarse loess”. In fact, this kind of loess sand tire has very good cementation, very fine and dense, and has strong adsorption to glaze. It can apply the opacified glaze very thinly, and there will be no flow glaze or accumulation during firing. The phenomenon of glaze
makes the glazed surface as bright as a mirror. This kind of porcelain body is obviously carefully selected. The artistic effect of "thin as paper and sound like a chime" is directly related to the use of this kind of porcelain body. At the same time, we can see from the Chengni inkstone that this kind of porcelain body not only does not affect the beauty, but also shows nobleness and is very artistic. It can fully admire the reputation of the emperor of porcelain and the crown of kilns. Chai kiln glaze is blue like the sky, full of yellow earth, azure and yellow. We don’t know if there is an idea of the unity of heaven and earth in it?
So does the wood kiln only have a kind of yellow fine sand and clay? No, because the ancients recorded that the word "duo" is "zuduo coarse loess", which means that most of the wood kiln porcelain is coarse loess, which does not mean that there is a lot of coarse loess at the foot. Therefore, it shows that the wood kiln porcelain is not all loess. We can see from the porcelain pillows of the white porcelain carving hall that there are at least gray and white porcelain tires. As for whether there are other types of porcelain tires, we still need to discover and explore. In fact, the firewood kiln has been established in just a few years from the beginning to the end. , It should always be in the stage of continuous testing and development, not only the wood kiln, but any other kiln mouth will have this stage at the beginning of its establishment. In order to produce the most exquisite and perfect blue-like porcelain, and to maintain a high yield, the craftsmen are always developing various glaze formulations, as well as various tire compound formulations, and what glazes are used What kind of tire material can ensure a high yield rate to burn porcelain of the emperor's prescribed style? Chai Rong only wanted porcelain with as blue as the sky, and did not stipulate what kind of porcelain material to use. Therefore, it is not impossible for Chai kiln porcelain to have many types of porcelain.
|So are Chai kiln porcelains all thin walls? In fact, it is not, because the ancient porcelain craftsmen in my country not only pay attention to aesthetics, but also pay attention to mechanics. They will perfectly combine mechanics and aesthetics to design perfect porcelain according to the different functions of porcelain. Tea sets, tableware, stationery, and ornaments can be made very thin, while porcelain pillows, flower pots, and ding stoves must be made thicker to avoid damage during use, even if the thin-walled porcelain is firewood. What Rong Keyi requested, it is impossible to make all types of porcelain as thin as paper, because some porcelains would not be able to meet the functions of use. Even though the walls of the same utensil are made as thin as paper, the parts that are often stressed, such as legs and ears, will not be made very thin. Zhang Yingwen's Qing Mi Zang in the Ming Dynasty once recorded: "On kiln utensils, It must be Chai, Ru, Guan, Ge, Ding. Chai cannot be obtained. Hearing it makes the cloud: blue as the sky, bright as a mirror, thin as paper, and sound like a chime. I have seen this in person, so the argument is true. For the rest, see a piece of remnant, if it is made of a ring, the color and light are the same, but the ears are different." The record in this paragraph should be credible. Zhang Yingwen may have seen a washing end ear. Because of the end force, he made it thicker. From this we have come to the conclusion that "thin as paper" is only a feature of certain types of utensils in Chai kiln porcelain, not a feature of all Chai kiln porcelains, and whether it is "thin as paper|" to affirm or deny a piece Whether the utensil and a piece of porcelain are Chai kiln porcelain.
10. Are there any varieties of Chai kiln porcelain that use carving techniques as decoration?
Are there any varieties of Chai kiln porcelain that use techniques such as carving flowers as decoration? The ancients did not document this issue, but modern scholars are very controversial about this. Some scholars believe that Chai kiln porcelain is a kind of porcelain that wins with glaze color. In addition, there is no record in ancient documents. Therefore, Chai kiln porcelain does not use techniques such as carving flowers. As a decorative variety, some scholars believe that even Chai kiln porcelain is a variety that is glaze-colored, even if it is not recorded in ancient documents, it is also a variety that can be decorated with techniques such as carving flowers. The glaze-colored porcelain species has no pattern recorded in ancient documents, but the porcelain species with decorative patterns has been found in archaeological excavations. Let us continue to discuss this issue. When the firewood kiln was established, many famous kilns were imitated. As a sample for Chai Rong's review, the sample porcelain will definitely be decorated with carved flowers and other techniques. After the Chai Rong kiln specializes in firing blue as the sky porcelain, the kiln will fire blue Are there any porcelain varieties with patterns carved on it like the sky? Let us infer from common sense that the artisans in the kilns at that time were all master porcelain makers, with comprehensive skills and proficient in carving craftsmanship. They were firing them, "Blue as the sky, as bright as a mirror, and as thin as paper. After the perfect porcelain with a sound like a chime, you should think that if you engrave exquisite patterns on the porcelain, will the perfect porcelain be even more icing on the cake? This idea will be supported by Chai Rong if he thinks about it, because what Chai Rong longs for is perfect porcelain. In this case, artisans have begun to try to burn porcelain with patterns that are as blue as the sky. What will be the result? The answer to this question can be found in Ru kiln porcelain. We know that there are only three or four pieces of Ru kiln porcelain that exist in the world. There are only three or four pieces with patterns. There are also some unearthed porcelain pieces. In comparison, it’s negligible. The firing time of the Ru kiln is much longer than that of the wood kiln. Why do you only fire so few porcelains with engraved ornaments? Is it because the craftsmen of Ru kiln are not good at engraving flowers, or with Porcelain carved with flower craftsmanship is not liked by rulers. I think neither of these two points, but there are other reasons. This reason should be in the porcelain craftsmanship of Ru kiln. We know the opalescence nature of Ru kiln porcelain. This kind of agate glaze is relatively viscous and has a strong covering effect when applied to the porcelain body. Even if the fine decorations are carved on the porcelain body, under the cover of the agate glaze, the patterns are faint, without a sense of clarity. , Not only does not show the fine beauty of the ornamentation to add beauty to the utensils, on the contrary, the unclear and bright ornamentation destroys the original clear and clear jade texture of the glaze. Now let's take a closer look at a few pieces of Ru kiln porcelain with patterns, and compare it with those without patterns. This problem does exist. For this reason, the Ru porcelain with patterns was not accepted by the rulers, and the burning was ordered to cease, leaving only a few poor Ru kiln porcelains with carved patterns for future generations. The firing process of the firewood kiln is similar to that of the Ru kiln, and it is also a milky and viscous agate glaze. Presumably, the craftsmen of the firewood kiln also encountered this problem when firing the carved and carved blue and sky porcelain. Chai Rong's superb appreciation Ability, and I don’t like the blue and sky-colored porcelain with unclear decorations. The decorations did not make the porcelain icing on the cake, but superfluous, and ordered the abolition. The number is very small, and it may not be preserved, so it is not recorded by future generations. If the above inference is correct, then we know that Chai kiln porcelain is decorated with carvings and other techniques, but it is not known how many pieces are available.
11. Where is the kiln site of the wood kiln?
Regarding the question of where the kiln site of the firewood kiln is, because archaeological excavations have not been found, and the records of ancient documents are not very auspicious, it has caused different speculations among many contemporary scholars. Of course, most of these scholars believe that firewood kilns do not have independent kiln openings. Chai kiln porcelain was only the top product fired at a certain kiln mouth of several famous kilns at that time. Therefore, the kiln site of the wood kiln belonged to the kiln mouth where they believed that the wood kiln porcelain was fired. Therefore, we will not comment on these views. This only boldly elaborated his own speculation: in the Five Dynasties, there were many famous kilns in China, and all kinds of fine porcelains were stacked. As an emperor, Chai Rong, as an emperor, would love porcelain any more and he could enjoy the famous porcelains from all over the world. He has to set up his own imperial kiln. It can be seen that setting up a kiln and developing and firing can satisfy his own aesthetic taste, and that he has peerless ancient and modern porcelain, is just one of his purposes. Another purpose is to participate in it and experience it personally. A sense of accomplishment of creatively firing exquisite works of art under your own control. If our guess is correct and Chai Rong really has this kind of psychology, then he would never rely on this kiln yard under any kiln mouth at that time, because if that is the case, the geographical location is far away, which is not good for his supervision and control. , Secondly, even if he burns peerless famous porcelain, his sense of accomplishment will be reduced. Therefore, he will definitely set up a kiln independently. At the same time, the location of the kiln should not be too far away from his palace. It should be in the capital. In fact, Chai Rong’s kiln is only for his own appreciation. Therefore, the scale of the kiln will not be very large. He can choose a courtyard near the imperial palace and build two or three steamed bun kilns to meet the needs of firing porcelain. As for the kiln workers, porcelain raw materials, and porcelain On the one hand, the equipment can be selected and transported in the famous kilns at that time, on the other hand, skilled craftsmen can be recruited from all over the country, and high-quality porcelain materials can be used. According to the emperor's fate, I believe that a small-scale kiln will be put into operation soon. In this way, Chai Rong can visit the kiln to supervise and guide the development, testing and firing of porcelain in his spare time. The ancient document "Nan Kiln Notes" contains: "Chai Kiln, during the Wude period of Zhou Dynasty, the treasure house was fired, glass, agate, and other golden stones were sintered in one place, and the glaze was made by order". The three words "treasury fire" are mentioned here. What is it? Did Chai Rong change a warehouse courtyard containing important national materials in the capital into a kiln, where fire was made to burn porcelain, so the ancients called it the "treasury fire"? As for the "Ge Gu Yao Lun", it is not necessarily wrong to record that "the firewood kiln came out of the north", maybe the warehouse is in the north of the capital, the ancients called that place the north, so there is a record of "the firewood kiln came out of the north" . At one point, we should consider that the firing time of wood kilns is very short. In just a few years, not only did the pioneering porcelain fired as blue as the sky, but also invented agate glaze and used the technology of making Chengmu inkstone. Porcelain technology. This series of technological innovations that pioneered ancient and modern is inseparable from Chai Rong’s direct participation and decision-making. If the firewood kiln is located in remote places such as Hutian, Yaozhou, Yuezhou, etc., Chai Rong will only rely on the decree to participate. It is difficult to make a decision in which era of war and chaos. Therefore, the conclusion of this series of speculations is that the kiln site of the firewood kiln was in the capital city at that time. Of course, whether this inference is correct or not depends on Waiting for the confirmation of future archaeological excavations.
Through the above discussion, analysis, speculation, and elaboration on various controversial issues of firewood kiln porcelain, although not necessarily very correct, I believe that everyone will have a closer understanding of the nature of firewood kiln and the characteristics of firewood kiln porcelain. I also understand the historical position of the wood kiln in the history of ceramics in my country, and the application of many pioneering porcelain materials in the wood kiln, which has a profound impact on my country's later ceramic manufacturing technology. Therefore, there are still several aspects in our research on Chai kiln porcelain that cannot be ignored. One is the shaping technology of Chai kiln porcelain. Most of the walls of Chai kiln porcelain are made very thin. The shaping technology of the porcelain body is not only manual drawing. In addition to processes such as, molding, inlay joining, etc., have they invented very advanced porcelain tire molding technology? Some scholars believe that when the wood kiln made some special-shaped utensils, it invented and used a method similar to the ancient "lost wax method" to cast bronzes to shape the porcelain body, such as firing a gourd. For the shaped porcelain bottle, first use wax to make a fine inner frame exactly the same as the gourd shape to be made, and then use the good and extremely viscous porcelain clay to evenly apply it to the waxed gourd Fan on, compacted side by side. After the clay is slightly dry and has a certain strength, carefully scrape the porcelain clay body with a knife, leaving only a thin layer. This layer is the required thickness of the porcelain wall. After that, heat it up, and the wax inner vane melts and flows out, thus completing the manufacturing process of a porcelain tire. The porcelain body made in this way has a uniform porcelain wall thickness and a very smooth inner wall.
The research findings of this scholar are still very credible, because Ru kiln has also discovered objects similar to the molding method. As a kiln that gathers the country’s top ceramic talents, the wood kiln has a strong economic foundation and can invent advanced Porcelain technology is very normal. The second is the glaze technique of the firewood kiln porcelain. The firewood kiln porcelain can apply the viscous agate glaze very thin, and there is no phenomenon of glaze flow, glaze accumulation, wax tears during the firing process, and the glaze is smooth as a mirror. Does a good glaze also use advanced glazing technology in addition to its comparable tire material? This is still worth studying. The third is the supporting and mat firing techniques of the firewood kiln porcelain. What kind of mat firing techniques can be used for the firewood kiln porcelain to treat the bottom of the utensils perfectly? In addition to mat-yaki, is there a stick-yaki that is full-glazed stick-yaki? Or is it another form of burning? These are all worthy of our discovery and research.
Chai kiln porcelain is a kiba in the history of porcelain making in our country. It is also a piece of history. We study history today, in addition to combining ancient documents and archaeological data, it is more reasonable speculation, although speculation may not be true. History, but he can at least give us inspiration, and we are also studying firewood kiln porcelain. Although we have no chance to get a firewood kiln porcelain, we can indeed make associations and speculations based on ancient documents, and let these associations and speculations give Chai kiln porcelain. Kiln lovers find, explore, and study the inspiration of firewood kiln porcelain. Through the joint efforts of all firewood kiln enthusiasts, they can find the firewood kiln porcelain buried in the world and unveil the mystery of the thousand-year-old kiln as soon as possible.
Song Huizong【Wenhui Picture】
It can be seen from the [Wenhui Picture] that the geometric size of this wine scripture bottle is very large, almost a foot high. It can also be seen that the wine scripture bottle was just an ordinary bottle for wine at the time, and later The plum bottle is a far cry in comparison.
Legend has it that Zhou Shizong Chai Rong was a merchant emperor, who developed porcelain and wine, so making ceramic wine bottles would not be a problem!
Encyclopedia business card Zhou Shizong
Shizong Chai Rong of the Later Zhou Dynasty (921-959) was the Emperor of the Later Zhou Dynasty during the Five Dynasties. Reigned from 954 to 959, reigned for 6 years. A native of Chaijiazhuang, Yaoshan, Xingzhou (now Longyao County, Xingtai City, Hebei Province), his father Chai Shouli, and his grandfather Chai Weng was a prominent local family. When he was young, Chai Rong used to sell tea in Jiangling with the businessman Jie Ding, and he experienced social ills. Shi Zaiqi was "intrigued in appearance, good at riding and shooting, a little familiar with the history of Huang Lao, heavy and reluctant to speak", he was the adopted son of Zhou Taizu Guo Wei (Chai Rong himself was Guo Wei's nephew). The temple was named Sejong, and the posthumous name was Emperor Ruiwu Xiaowen.
The introduction described Zhou Shizong and Chai Rong personally.
[Unofficial History] It is recorded that Zhou Shizong Chai Rong was engaged in commerce and trade, and his main business was porcelain wine making.
[Raining, the sky, the sky, and the clouds, the color like those who break the place, do the future] The blue color of this sky is probably not seen by Zhou Shizong and Chai Rong.