|Human understanding of health: the concept and development of health
| People all want to be healthy, and health is the basic human right and the source of happiness. Any age or nation regards health as the first need of life. With the development of social economy and culture, the connotation and extension of health have also undergone major changes. From the original single-dimensional, negative health model to a multi-dimensional, positive overall health model, it has deepened the understanding and understanding of health, and promoted the development of health care .
1. The traditional concept of
health has different understandings and understandings of health due to the different times, cultures, environments and conditions in which people live. Influenced by the traditional biomedical model and secular culture, people have long regarded the presence or absence of disease as the standard of health, and simply understood health as “no disease, no disability, and no injury” . This single-dimensional health model makes doctors only focus on the treatment of diseases, while ignoring the prevention of diseases, which is a negative view of health. It also ignores the interaction of physiological, pathological, psychological and social factors on health and disease. Different occupations have different understandings and requirements for health. Sports coaches may think that eating a regular diet, exercising regularly, maintaining a normal weight and good physical condition is health; clinicians think that no disease is health; and psychologists think that health also includes the ability to cope with emotional problems and psychological trauma . With the deepening of people's understanding of health, it is found that these views are not perfect, and only emphasize certain aspects or dimensions of health, while ignoring the overall health (holistic health). Modern medicine has put forward higher requirements for health, which has prompted it to develop towards a multi-dimensional, active and holistic health model.
The modern concept of health
The modern health concept believes that health is not limited to physical health, but also includes mental health and good social adaptation. According to the World Health Organization (WHO, 1947), the concept of health is: "Health is a state of physical, psychological and social completeness, not merely the absence of disease or infirmity (Health is a state of complete physical, mental , and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity)” . This definition measures the level of health from three dimensions, which is the concrete embodiment of the bio-psycho-social medical model in the concept of health, and promotes the rapid development of the health movement.
Over the years, many scholars have conducted systematic research on health and its influencing factors, and found that the WHO's three-dimensional health model is still not perfect. Some people think that "completeness" is too demanding and ideal, and few people can meet this standard; others think that "state" reflects static, and health is a dynamic process of constant change . More health workers believe that there are many factors that affect health, such as emotions, reason, environment, interpersonal relationships, etc., but the WHO health model has too few dimensions, too abstract, and cannot include all factors that affect health.
1. Health level
Illness and health are a continuum that constitutes the illness/wellness cnotinuum. In the disease/health spectrum, one end is the disease state, which can present symptoms, signs and disability, the extreme is death, and the other end is the healthy state, which can be expressed as optimal health [5, 6]. The WHO standard only emphasizes two extreme cases in the disease/health continuum, and most people are in different positions on the disease/health continuum, so it is impossible to determine the actual health level of individuals such as sub-health state, sub-clinical disease, etc. A variety of situations are evaluated. According to the pattern of the disease/health spectrum, the actual health status of the individual can be measured to understand the health level of the individual in different periods, not just two extreme cases. Therefore, it is more appropriate to use the health level to measure the actual health status of an individual.
2. Dimensions of health
In the 1960s, with the development of the holistic health movement, emphasis was placed on the overall impact of individuals on themselves and all factors on health, which promoted the continuous expansion of the three-dimensional health model. The 1986 World Association for Mental Health Declaration states that health also includes good moral character. Most scholars have found that emotion and reason are responsible for different aspects of mental health, and they are two relatively independent parts. It is proposed to divide the psychological dimension of health into an emotional dimension and an intellectual dimension. spiritual dimension). In order to emphasize the importance of occupational interpersonal relationships in the social dimension and its impact on health and disease, some scholars suggest that they should be separated from general social relationships and form an independent occupational dimension. With the development of human society and economy, the impact of environmental problems on health and disease has become increasingly prominent. For this reason, many scholars believe that health should also include an environmental dimension. At present, health has developed from a single dimension to today's seven dimensions. Each dimension interacts and influences each other, so that individuals are at different levels of health [7,8]. Therefore, health is a dynamic multidimensional structure composed of various influencing factors and interacting with each other. The seven dimensions of health are now introduced as follows:
(1) Physical health: refers to the individual's structural and functional state, as well as the response to disease and injury. Physical health is what people usually call "health", and it is one of the most important characteristics of a healthy person. Healthy behaviors are important to physical health, such as a reasonable diet, regular physical activity, maintaining a normal weight, and limiting the use of harmful substances such as alcohol, cigarettes, and addictive drugs. In addition, it is also very important to pay attention to the body's disease signals, to have regular physical examinations, to learn basic self-care techniques, and to treat your own health problems correctly.
(2) emotional health (emotional health): usually refers to people's emotional and emotional health. Emotions can be expressed as happiness, happiness, sadness, excitement, worry, fear, depression, etc., and emotional stability and happiness are important signs of emotional health. Emotions play a central role in mental health, and emotional health is an important indicator of mental health. Emotional abnormalities (such as anxiety, depression, terror, etc.) are often the harbingers of mental illness. Emotions also play an important role in physical health and disease. A good emotional state can reduce the incidence of stress-related diseases (such as ulcer disease, vascular headache, asthma, etc.), and is conducive to the recovery of the disease. Chronic stress and negative emotions can suppress immune function and increase the risk of various diseases .
(3) Intellectual health: Intellect is a part of the mind, which refers to the ability of an individual to know, understand, think and decide, and plays an extremely important role in the overall health of an individual. People will encounter all kinds of problems in their life, and they all need to think and analyze calmly and make rational choices or decisions according to their own values and beliefs. Intellectual health and emotional health are both components of mental health that are distinct but can influence each other. Emotions can impair an individual's ability to think, and cluttered thinking can increase the difficulty of dealing with emotional problems.
(4) Spiritual dimension: Spirituality refers to people's thoughts, emotions, consciousness, attitudes or moral character of the whole person. Mental health plays a central role in an individual's health. People's religious beliefs, cultural backgrounds and races are different, and the standards for mental health are also different. The mind can promote emotional development, and the individual's health can affect people's minds.
(5) Social health: refers to the ability of an individual to play his role (such as son, daughter, parent, spouse, friend, neighbor, citizen, etc.) happily and effectively without harming others . People live in society and play different roles, each with responsibilities and risks. Therefore, social skills and interpersonal relationships play a key role in people's psychological development. Meeting people's needs for love, intimacy, and friendship is an important factor in social health. Deprivation of these needs will damage the individual's health.
(6) Occupational health: The occupational environment of an individual includes the working environment and the social environment. The former refers to the objective environment and belongs to the content of environmental health; the latter refers to the occupational interpersonal relationship, which is separated from the general social relationship. Occupational health mainly includes individual satisfaction with employment, work and interpersonal relationships with employers and colleagues.
(7) Environmental health: With the progress and development of human civilization, the impact of the environment on health and disease has received increasing attention. The environment includes the internal environment and the external environment. The former refers to the individual's physical and psychological environment, while the latter refers to the natural environment and social environment. Environmental health mainly explores the impact of the external environment on health and disease. Natural disasters such as earthquakes, floods, fires, tornadoes, mudslides, etc., as well as the impact of man-made chemical substances (such as air, water, food, soil pollution, etc.), physical factors (heavy metals, radiation, noise pollution, etc.) and biological factors on the environment Serious threat to human health and survival, reducing the harm of disasters and environmental pollution to health and survival is an important issue facing the current social development. A series of problems in the social environment, such as industrialization, urban population growth, overcrowding, traffic accidents, social unrest, immigration, and war, can endanger the physical and mental health of human beings. Therefore, reducing these harmful factors in the social environment will be beneficial to human health.
3. Holistic health: The seven dimensions of health are very important to the overall health of an individual. Some people may be more concerned about their physical health, while others may be more concerned about their mental health such as emotional health, intellectual health, relationships with others, etc. However, the integration of all dimensions that affect health constitutes the overall health of an individual. These dimensions interact and influence each other to jointly promote the development of individual health. A good mind is good for the individual's emotional health, and good mood is good for the individual's social and interpersonal relationships, and the mental health, emotional health and social health can better prevent the individual from various physical diseases and benefit the body. recovery from illness. Enhancing any one dimension of health will benefit the development of other health dimensions, while ignoring any one dimension of health will harm an individual's overall health . Therefore, fully understanding the role of each dimension and its mutual influence, and maintaining the balanced development of each dimension will benefit the overall health of the individual.
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Xu Mingming/Wen Fan Changhe/School